History of Bangladesh:

Bangladesh became independent in 1971 by the liberation war from Pakistan costing about 3 million valuable lives. Former to the establishment of Pakistan in 1947, present-day Bangladesh was part of ancient, classical, medieval and majestic India.

Bangladesh consists for the most part of East Bengal (West Bengal is part of India and its people are primarily Hindu). People of both state speaks in Bangle plus they have a very good relationship between each other.

The most basic reference to the state was to a kingdom called Vanga, or Banga (c. 1000 B.C.). Buddhists ruled for centuries, but by the 10th century Bengal was generally Hindu. Bengal became part of the Mogul Empire, in 1576 and the greater part of East Bengalis renewed to Islam. British India ruled Bengal from 1757 until Britain withdrew in 1947 and Pakistan was founded out of the two more often than not Muslim regions of the Indian subcontinent. For approximately 25 years after independence from Britain, its history was part of Pakistan’s. The borders of present-day Bangladesh were established with the dividing wall of Bengal and India in 1947, when the region became East Pakistan, part of the lately formed Islamic State of Pakistan.

Both Pakistan were combined by religion (Islam), but especially their peoples were separated by culture, physical features, and 1,000 miles of Indian Territory. West Pakistan started to dominate them against East Pakistan by discriminating a large part of economical, cultural, educational, language and so many issues. Peaceful people of Bangladesh gained their rights as a freedom nation by valiant struggle and the supreme sacrifice of freedom loving people of this country.

After independence, the new state endured famine, natural disasters and widespread poverty, as well as political turmoil and military coups. The restoration of democracy in 1991 has been followed by relative calm and economic progress.

Etymology of Bengal:

The word Bangla or Bengal is really unknown to it’s past history. According to Mahabharata, Purana, HarivamshaVanga was one of the adopted sons of king Vali[disambiguation needed] who founded the Vanga kingdom. The earliest reference to “Vangala” (Bôngal) has been traced in the Nesari plates (805 AD) of RashtrakutaGovinda III which speak of Dharmapala as the king of Vangala. Shams-ud-din Ilyas Shah took the name “Shah-e-Bangalah” and united the whole state underneath one government for the first time.

Vanga Kingdom (also known as Banga) was a kingdom situated in the eastern branch of the Indian Subcontinent, comprise part of West Bengal, India and present-day modern Bangladesh. Vanga and Pundra were two leading tribes in Bangladesh in olden time.

Pre-historic Bengal:

Bangla has a large pre-historic Bengel. Some Bangla language has created it’s natural way. Different times many mixed word was used in this language most of the words has added in this language. Like the original settlers spoke non-Aryan languages—they may have spoken Austric or Austro-Asiatic languages like the languages of the present-day Kola, Bhil, Santal, Shabara and Pulinda peoples. At a subsequent age, peoples speaking languages from two other language families—Dravidian and Tibeto-Burman—seem to have settled in Bengal.

Bengal in mythology:

The early people in Bengal were dissimilar in civilization and culture from the Vedic beyond the boundary of Aryandom and who were classed as ‘Dasyus’ some one’s say’s it. The BhagavataPurana classes them as wicked people whilst Dharmasutra of Bodhayana prescribes expiatory rites after a journey among the Pundras and Vangas. Mahabharata speaks of PaundrakaVasudeva who was lord of the Pundrasand who allied himself with Jarasandha against Krishna. Mahabharata also speaks of Bengali kings called Chitrasena and Sanudrasena who were defeated by Bhima.


Mahabharata (a Hindu scriptures) say that Bangladesh was separated between the Janapadas: Suhma (western Bengal), Pundra (northern Bengal), and Vanga (southern Bengal) by their respective totems. Scriptures classify Vanga and Banga in Bangladesh as Indo-Aryan then western Bangladesh, as part of Magadha, became part of the Indo-Aryan civilization by the 7th century BCE, the Nanda Dynasty was the first historical state to unify all of Bangladesh under Indo-Aryan rule.

Overseas Colonization:

Among the kingdom of ancient India Vanga was a powerful naval nation of ancient India. They had trade relations with Java, Sumatra and Siam (modern day Thailand) overseas. According to Mahavamsa, the Vanga prince VijayaSingha dominated Lanka (present day Sri Lanka) in 544 BC and gave the name “Sinhala” to the country. Bengali people migrated to the nautical Southeast Asia and Siam (in modern Thailand), establish their own colonies there.

Gangaridai Empire:

Although north and west Bengal were part of the Magadhan empire southern Bengal thrived and became dominant with her overseas trades. In 326 BCE, with the attack of Alexander the Great the region all over again came to importance. The Latin and Greek historians recommended that Alexander the Great withdrew from India anticipating the heroic contradict attack of the mighty Gangaridaiempire that was positioned in the Bengal area. DiodorusSiculus mentions Gangaridai to be the the largest part dominant empire in India whose king obsessed an military of 20,000 horses, 200,000 infantry, 2,000 chariots and 4,000 elephants trained and equipped for war. The allied military of Gangaridai Empire and Nanda Empire (Prasii) were preparing a massive counter hit against the military of Alexander on the banks of Ganges. Gangaridai, according to the Greek accounts, kept on flourishing at slightest up to the 1st century AD.

Early Middle Ages:

Bengal is masked with darknes at the time of pre-Gupta. before the conquest of Samudragupta Bengal was divided into two kingdoms before the conquest of Samudragupta: Pushkarana and Samatata. Chandragupta had defeated a coalition of Vanga kings resultant in Bengal fetching part of the Gupta Empire.

Gauda Kingdom:

By the 6th century, the Gupta Empire ruling over Eastern Bengal became the Vanga Kingdom while the Gauda kings rose in the west with their capital at Karnasuvarna (Murshidabad). Shashanka, a vassal of the last Gupta Empire became free and unified the smaller principalities of Bengal (Gaur, Vanga, Samatata) and vied for local power with Harshavardhana in northern India. The development of the Bengali calendar is also often attributed to Shashanka as the opening date falls exactly within his control(600 AD–626 AD).

The Pala dynasty:

Pala reign were the first independent Buddhist reign of Bengal. The name Pala (Bengali: পাল pal) means defender and was used as an finish to the names of all Pala royals. Gopala was the first ruler from the reign. He came to control in 750 in Gaur by a democratic choice. This occasion is known as one of the first democratic elections in South Asia since the time of the MahāJanapadas. He reigned from 750-770 and consolidated his position by extending his control over all of Bengal. The Buddhist dynasty lasted for four centuries (750-1120 AD) and ushered in a period of stability and success in Bengal. They created many temples and works of art as well as supported the Universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila. SomapuraMahavihara built by Dharmapala is the greatest Buddhist Vihara in the Indian Subcontinent.

Dharmapala extended the empire into the northern parts of the Indian Subcontinent. This triggered once more for the manage of the subcontinent. Devapala, heir of Dharmapala, lengthened the empire to cover much of South Asia and afar. His empire stretched from Assam and Utkala in the east, Kamboja (modern day Afghanistan) in the north-west and Deccan in the south. According to Pala copperplate dedication Devapala exterminated the Alkalis, occupied the Pragjyotisha (Assam), shattered the pride of the Huna, and humbled the lords of Gurjara, Pratiharas and the Dravidas.

Pala Empire and several independent dynasties and kingdoms Ended by the death of Devapala. However, Mahipala − I revived the reign of the Palas. He improved be in charge of over all of Bengal and expanded the empire. He survived the invasions of RajendraChola and the Chalukyas. After Mahipala − I the Pala dynasty over again saw its reject until Ramapala, the last great ruler of the dynasty, managed to recover the position of the dynasty to some point. He trampled the Varendra uprising and unmitigated his empire farther to Kamarupa, Orissa and Northern India.

The Pala Empire can be measured as the golden era of Bengal. Never had the Bengali people reached such height of power and glory to that level. Palas were responsible for the beginning of Mahayana Buddhism in Tibet, Bhutan and Myanmar. The Pala had extensive trade as well as authority in south-east Asia. This can be seen in the sculptures and architectural way of the Sailed Empire (present-day Malaya, Java, Sumatra).

Sena dynasty:

The Palas were followed by the Sena reign who brought Bengal below one ruler in the 12th century. Vijay Sen the second ruler of this reign crushed the final Pala emperor Madanapala and recognized his reign. BallalSena introduced caste system in Bengal and made Nabadwip the capital. Lakshman fled to eastern Bengal below the onslaught of the Muslims without facing them in battle. The Sena dynasty brought a stage of revival in Hinduism in Bengal. A popular myth comprehended by some Bengali authors about Jayadeva, the well-known Sanskrit poet of Orissa (then known as the Kalinga) and author of Gita Govinda, was one of the Pancharatnas (meaning 5 gems) in the court of LakshmanSen (although this may be disputed by some).

Late Middle Ages arrival of Islam:

At the time of 12th century when Sufi missionaries arrived Islam made its first appearance in Bengal. opening in 1202, a military senior officer from the Delhi Sultanate, BakhtiarKhilji, overran Bihar and Bengal as far east as Rangpur, Bogra and the Brahmaputra River. The defeated LaksmanSen and his two sons moved to a place then called Vikramapur (present-day Munshiganj District), where their diminished dominion lasted pending the late 13th century.

Due to the Deva dynasty Hindu states continued to exist in the Southern and the Eastern parts of Bengal till the 1450s. Also, the Ganesha dynasty started with Raja Ganesha in 1414, but his successors transformed to Islam. There were several independent Hindu states established in Bengal at some stage in the Mughal period like those of Maharaja Pratapaditya of Jessore and Raja Sitaram Ray of Burdwan. These kingdoms contributed a lot to the financial and artistic setting of Bengal. These kingdoms also helped establish new music, painting, dancing and monument into Bengali art-forms as well as many temples were constructed for this period. Militarily, these served as bulwarks against Portuguese and Burmese attacks. Many of these kingdoms are recorded to have fallen during the late 1700s. While Koch Bihar Kingdom in the North, flourished during the period of 16th and the 17th centuries as well as gnarled the Mughals also and survived till the dawn of the British.

Deva Kingdom:

The Deva Kingdom was a Hindu dynasty of medieval Bengal that ruled over eastern Bengal after the give way Sena Empire. The capital of this period was Bikrampur in present-day Munshiganj District of Bangladesh. The inscriptional evidences illustrate that his kingdom was absolute up to the present-day Comilla-Noakhali-Chittagong region. A later ruler of the dynasty Ariraja-Danuja-MadhavaDasharatha-Deva extended his kingdom to envelop a good deal of East Bengal. The end of this dynasty is not yet known.

Turkic rule:


After BakhtiarKhilji’s death in 1207 devolved into infighting among the Khiljis – representative of a pattern of succession struggles and intra-empire intrigues during later Turkic regimes. GhiyasuddinIwazKhalji prevailed and absolute the Sultan’s province south to Jessore and made the eastern Bang province a tributary. The capital was made at Lakhnauti on the Ganges near the older Bengal capital of Gaur. He managed to make Kamarupa and Trihut pay tribute to him. But he was later defeated by Shams-ud-Din Iltutmish.

Mameluk rule

Bengal was sufficiently remote from Delhi that its governors would pronounce independence on occasion, styling themselves as Sultans of Bengal. It was in this time that Bengal earned the name “Bulgakpur” (land of the rebels). TughralTogun Khan added Oudh and Bihar to Bengal. MughisuddinYuzbak also occupied Bihar and Oudh from Delhi but was killed during an unsuccessful mission in Assam. Two Turkic attempts to shove east of the broad Jamuna and Brahmaputra rivers were repulsed, but a third led by MughisuddinTughral conquered the Sonargaon area south of Dhaka to Faridpur, bringing the Sen Kingdom officially to an end by 1277. MughisuddinTughral repulsed two massive attacks of the sultanate of Delhi before finally being defeated and killed by Ghiyasud din Balban.

Mahmud Shahi dynasty

Bengal regained her independence back wlile Mahmud Shahi dynasty started when NasiruddinBughra Khan declared independence in Bengal. NasiruddinBughra Khan and his successors ruled Bengal for 23 years finally being incorporated into Delhi Sultanate by GhyiasuddinTughlaq.

IlyasShahi dynasty

ShamsuddinIliyas Shah founded an independent dynasty that lasted from 1342-1487. They continuous to reel in the territory of modern-day Bengal, reaching to Khulna in the south and Sylhet in the east. The sultans advanced local institutions and became more responsive and “native” in their outlook and cut loose from Delhi. Considerable architectural projects were finished including the massive Adina Mosque and the Darasbari Mosque which still stands in Bangladesh near the border. The Sultans of Bengal were clients of Bengali literature and began a progression in which Bengali culture and individuality would prosper. The IlyasShahi Dynasty was interrupted by an uprising by the Hindus under Raja Ganesha. Yet the IlyasShahi dynasty was restored by Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah.

Ganesha dynasty

After Raja Ganesha seized control over Bengal he faced an imminent threat of invasion, The Ganesha dynasty began with Raja Ganesha in 1414. Ganesha appealed to a powerful Muslim holy man named Qutb al Alam, to stop the threat. The saint agreed on the condition that Raja Ganesha’s son Jadu would exchange to Islam and rule in his place. Raja Ganesha decided and Jadu started ruling Bengal as Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah in 1415 AD. Qutb al Alam died in 1416 AD and Raja Ganesha was emboldened to oust his son and accede to the throne himself as Danujamarddana Deva. Jalaluddin was reconverted to Hinduism by the Golden Cow ritual. After the death of his father he once again converted to Islam and ongoing ruling his second point.[4] Jalaluddin’s son, Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah ruled for only 3 years due to chaos and revolution.

HussainShahi dynasty

The Habshi rule gave way to the HussainShahi dynasty that lined from 1494-1538. AlauddinHussain Shah, measured as the most of all the sultans of Bengal for bringing cultural renaissance during his reign. He extended the sultanate all the way to the port of Chittagong. NasiruddinNasrat Shah gave harbor to the Afghan lords during the invasion of Babur though he remained neutral. However Nusrat Shah made a treaty with Babur and saved Bengal from a Mughal invasion. Eventually, the Afghans broke through and sacked the capital in 1538 where they remained for numerous decades until the coming of the Mughals.

Pashtun rule:

Suri dynasty

Sur dynasty in Bengal is established by Shah Suri. After the battle of Chausa he declared himself independent Sultan of Bengal and Bihar. Sher Shah was the only Muslim Sultan of Bengal to establish an empire in northern India. The Delhi Sultanate Islam Shah appointed Muhammad Khan Sur as the governor of Bengal. After the death of Islam Shah, Muhammad Khan Sur became free. Muhammad Khan Sur was followed by GhyiasuddinBahadur Shah and Ghyiasuddin Jalal Shah. The Pashtun rule in Bengal remained for 44 years. Their most inspiring success was Sher Shah’s creation of the Grand Trunk Road linking Sonargaon, Delhi and Peshawar.

Karrani dynasty

The Sur dynasty was followed by the Karrani dynasty. Sulaiman Khan Karrani annexed Orissa to the Muslim sultanate lastingly. Daoud Shah Karrani declared independence from Akbar which led to four years of bloody war between the Mughals and the Pashtuns. The Mughal onslaught against the Pashtun Sultan ended with the clash of Rajmahal in 1576, led by Khan Jahan.

Mughal period

Bengal came once more underneath the control of Delhi as the Mughals occupied it in 1576. At that time Dhaka became a Mughal local capital. The Bengali ethnic and linguistic identity further crystallized during this period, since the whole of Bengal was united under an able and long-lasting administration. Furthermore its people were given enough self-rule to cultivate their own customs and literature.

In 1612, during Emperor Jahangir’s reign, the defeat of Sylhet completed the Mughal defeat of Bengal with the exception of Chittagong. At this time Dhaka rose in prominence by becoming the provincial capital of Bengal. Chittagong was later annexed in order to stifle Arakanese raids from the east. A well-known Dhaka landmark, Lalbagh Fort, was built during Aurangzeb’s power.

The Nawabs of Bengal (1717–1880)

MurshidQuli Khan broken the supposed Mughal rule in 1717 when he declared Bangladesh’s independence from the Mughal empire. He shifted the capital to Murshidabad escort in a series of free Bengal Nawabs.

From 1717 until 1880, three straight Islamic dynasties — the Nasiri, Afshar and Najafi — all linked by bloodlines, lined Bengal:

The first dynasty, the Nasiri, ruled from 1717 until 1740. The creator of the Nasiri, MurshidQuliJafar Khan, was born a poor Deccani Oriya Brahmin before being sold into slavery and bought by one Haji ShafiIsfahani, a Persian merchant from Isfahan who converted him to Islam. He entered the service of the Emperor Aurangzeb and rose through the ranks before becoming Nazim of Bengal in 1717, a post he held awaiting his death in 1727. He in turn was succeeded by his grandson and son-in law pending his grandson was killed in battle and succeeded by Alivardi Khan of the Afshar Dynasty in 1740.

The second dynasty, the Afshar, ruled from 1740 to 1757. They were succeeded by the third and final dynasty to rule Bengal, the Najafi, when SirajUdDaula, the last of the Afshar rulers was killed at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The Najafi ruled till 1880.

Thus the sun of independence of this country was lay down for a long time.

Europeans in Bengal

Portuguese traders and missionaries were the first Europeans to reach Bengal in the latter part of the 15th century. They were followed by representatives from the Netherlands, France, and the British East India Company. The Mughal Subahdar of Bengal Kasim Khan Mashadi totally destroyed the Portuguese forces in the Battle of Hoogly (1632). About 10,000 Portuguese men and women died in the battle and 4,400 were sent enslaved to Delhi.

The British gradually extended their commercial contacts and managerial control beyond Calcutta to the rest of Bengal. Job Charnock was one of the first dreamers of a British empire in Bengal. He waged war against the Mughal authority of Bengal which led to the Anglo-Mughal war for Bengal (1686–1690). Shaista Khan, the Nawab of Bengal, defeated the British in the battles of Hoogly as well as Baleshwar and expelled the British from Bengal. Captain William Heath with a naval fleet moved towards Chittagong but it was a failure and he had to retreat to Madras.

British rule

The British East India Company gained official control of Bengal following the Battle of Plassey in 1757. This was the first assault, in a series of activities that ultimately lead to the exclusion of other European competitors. The defeat of the Mughals and the consolidation of the subcontinent under the rule of a corporation was a distinctive event in imperialistic history. Kolkata (Anglicized as “Calcutta”) on the Hooghly became a major trading port for bamboo, tea, sugar cane, spices, cotton, muslin and jute produced in Dhaka, Rajshahi, Khulna, and Kushtia.

In 1858, authority in India was transferred from the Company to the crown, and the revolt was viciously suppressed. Rule of India was organized under a Viceroy and continued a pattern of economic exploitation. Famine racked the subcontinent many times, including at least two major famines in Bengal. The British Raj was politically organized into seventeen provinces of which Bengal was one of the most significant.

Bengal Renaissance

The Bengal Renaissance refers to a social reform movement during the nineteenth and early 20th centuries in Bengal in the period of British rule. The Bengal revival can be said to have started with Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1775–1833)[5] and ended with Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941), (Haji) Muhammad Mohsin (1732–1812), Syed Ameer Ali CIE (1849–1928), IshshorChôndroBiddashagor 26 September 1820 – 29 July 1891) Nineteenth century Bengal was a unique blend of religious and social reformers, scholars, literary giants, journalists, patriotic orators and scientists, all merging to form the image of a renaissance, and marked the evolution from the ‘medieval’ to the ‘modern’

Creation of Pakistan

During the 20th century, Bengali politicians played an active role in Mohandas Gandhi’s Congress Party and Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s Muslim League, exposing the differing forces of racial and religious nationalism. By exploit the latter, the British probably intended to distract the independence movement, for example by partitioning Bengal in 1905 along consecrated lines. The split only lasted for seven years.

In 1940 the Muslim League passed the Lahore decision which envisaged one or more Muslim popular states in South Asia. Non-negotiable was the inclusion of the Muslim parts of Punjab and Bengal in these planned states. The stakes grew as a new Viceroy Lord Mountbatten of Burma was appointed expressly for the purpose of effecting a graceful British exit. Communal violence in Noakhali and Calcutta sparked a surge in support for the Muslim League, which won a majority of Bengal’s Muslim seats in the 1946 election. At the last moment HuseynShaheedSuhrawardy and Sarat Chandra Bose came up with the idea of an independent and unified Bengal state, which was endorsed by Jinnah. This idea was vetoed by the Indian National Congress.

British India was partitioned and the independent states of India and Pakistan were created in 1947; the region of Bengal was divided along religious lines. The mainly Muslim eastern half of Bengal became the East Bengal (later renamed East Pakistan) state of Pakistan and the primarily Hindu western part became the Indian state of West Bengal.

Pakistan’s history from 1947 to 1971 was marked by political instability and economic difficulties. West Pakistani always deprived the peaceful people. The nascent democratic institutions founder in the face of military intervention in 1958, and the government imposed martial law between 1958 and 1962, and again between 1969 and 1971.

Almost from the advent of independent Pakistan in 1947, frictions developed between East and West Pakistan, which were separated by more than 1,000 miles of Indian territory. East Pakistanis felt exploited by the West Pakistan-dominated central government. Linguistic, cultural, and ethnic differences also contributed to the estrangement of East from West Pakistan.

The Bengali Language Movement

The Bengali Language Movement, also known as the Language Movement BhashaAndolon, was a political attempt in Bangladesh (then known as East Pakistan), advocating the recognition of the Bengali language as an official language of Pakistan. Such recognition would allow Bengali to be used in government affairs.

When the state of Pakistan was formed in 1947, its two regions, East Pakistan (also called East Bengal) and West Pakistan, were split along cultural, geographical, and linguistic lines.Pakistani rulers wanted Urdu’ll be the state language of Pakistan. But it was not recognized to the constitution.

In 1948, the Government of Pakistan ordained Urdu as the sole national language, sparking extensive protests among the Bengali-speaking majority of East Pakistan. Facing rising sectarian tensions and mass discontent with the new law, the government outlawed public meetings and rallies. The students of the University of Dhaka and other political activists defied the law and organised a protest on 21 February 1952. The movement reached its peak when police killed student demonstrators on that day. The deaths provoked widespread civil unrest led by the Awami Muslim League, later renamed the Awami League. After years of conflict, the central government relented and granted official status to the Bengali language in 1956. In 2000, UNESCO declared 21 February International Mother Language Day for the whole world to celebrate, in tribute to the Language faction and the ethno-linguistic rights of people just about the world.

The Language Movement catalysed the assertion of Bengali national identity in Pakistan, and became a forerunner to Bengali nationalist movements, including the 6-point movement and subsequently the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. In Bangladesh, 21 February is observed as Language Movement Day, a national holiday. The ShaheedMinar monument was constructed near Dhaka Medical College in memory of the movement and its victims.

Politics: 1954–1970

Great differences began developing between the two wings of Pakistan. While the west had a alternative share of Pakistan’s total population, it had the largest share of proceeds allocation, business development, agricultural reforms and civil development projects. Pakistan’s military and civil services were dominated by the fair-skinned, Persian-cultured Punjabis and Afghans. Only one regiment in the Pakistani Army was Bengali.


After the Awami League won all the East Pakistan chairs of the Pakistan’s National Assembly in the 1970-71 elections, West Pakistan opened talks with the East on constitutional questions about the division of power between the central government and the provinces, as well as the arrangement of a national government headed by the Awami League.

The talks proved ineffective, however, and on March 1, 1971, Pakistani President Yahya Khan indefinitely postponed the awaiting National Assembly session, precipitating gigantic civil disobedience in East Pakistan.

On March 2, 1971, a group of students, led by A S M Abdur Rob, student leader & VP of DUCSU (Dhaka University Central Students Union) raised the new (proposed) flag of Bangladesh under the direction of Swadhin Bangla Nucleus.

On March 3, 1971, student leader SahjahanSiraj read the SadhinotarIshtehar (Declaration of independence) at PaltanMaidan in face of BangabandhuShaikhMujib along with student and public gathering under the direction of Swadhin Bangla Nucleus

On March 7, there was a historical public gathering in PaltanMaidan to hear the guideline for the revolution and independence from ShaikhMujib, the frontier leader of movement that time. Although he avoided the direct speech of independence as the discussion were still underway, he influenced the mob to prepare for the separation war. The speech is still considered a key moment in the war of liberation, and is remembered for the phrase, “EbarerShongramMuktirShongram, EbarerShongramShadhinotarShongram….” (“This time, the revolution is for freedom; this time, the revolution is for liberation….”).

Formal Declaration of Independence

March 26, the Pakistani rulers killed a large number of grneral people Bangladesh. By using a lot of weapons. After the military crackdown by the Pakistan army began during the early hours of March 26, 1971Bangabandhu Sheikh MujiburRahman was arrested and the political leaders dispersed, mostly fleeing to neighbouring India where they organized a temporary government afterwards. Before being held up by the Pakistani Army Sheikh MujiburRahman gave a hand note of the declaration of the independence of Bangladesh and it was circulated amongst people and transmitted by the then East Pakistan Rifles’ wireless transmitter. Bengali Army Major Zia-Ur-Rahman captured Kalurghat Radio Station in Chittagong and read the declaration of independence of Bangladesh.

The Provisional Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh was bent in Meherpur, (later renamed as Mujibnagar a place adjacent to the Indian border). Sheikh MujiburRahman was announced to be the head of the state. Tajuddin Ahmed became the prime minister of the government. There the war plan was sketched with armed forces recognized named “Muktibahini” (freedom fighters). M. A. G. Osmani was assigned as the Chief of the force. The land sketched into 11 sectors under 11 sector commanders. Along with this sectors on the later part of the war Three special forces were formed namely Z Force, S Force and K Force. These three forces name were derived from the initial letter of the commandar’s name. The training and most of the arms and ammunitions were arranged by the Meherpurgovernment which were supported by India. As fighting grew between the Pakistan Army and the Bengali MuktiBahini, an expected ten million Bengalis, mainly Hindus, sought refuge in the Indian states of Assam, Tripura and West Bengal.

The crisis in East Pakistan produced new strains in Pakistan’s troubled relations with India. The two nations had fought a war in 1965, primarily in the west, but the pressure of millions of refugees escaping into India in autumn of 1971 as well as Pakistani aggression reignited hostilities with Pakistan. Indian sympathies lay with East Pakistan, and on December 3, 1971, India intervened on the side of the Bangladeshis.

Surrender and aftermath

On 16 December 1971, Lt. Gen A. A. K. Niazi, CO of Pakistan Army forces located in East Pakistan signed the Instrument of Surrender and the nation of Bangla Desh (“Country of Bengal”) was finally established the following day. At the time of surrender only a few countries had provided diplomatic recognition to the new nation. Over 90,000 Pakistani troops surrendered to the Indian forces making it the largest surrender since World War II. The new country changed its name to Bangladesh on January 11, 1972 and became a parliamentary democracy under a constitution. Shortly thereafter on March 19 Bangladesh signed a friendship treaty with India.Bangladesh sought admission in the UN with most voting in its favour, but China vetoed this as Pakistan was its key ally. The United States, also a key ally of Pakistan, was one of the last nations to accord Bangladesh recognition. To ensure a smooth transition, in 1972 the Simla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan. The treaty ensured that Pakistan recognised the independence of Bangladesh in exchange for the return of the Pakistani PoWs.